Wooden house – from which material to built to be safe, long-lasting and durable?
The most pleasant microclimate for living is in the wooden house and it is the most favorable for people’s health, thereby, purposefully choosing a wooden material, from which to build a wooden carcass house, for example, pine tree, fir, larch etc., the building gets other specific quality characteristics, for example, extra durability.
A wooden house should be protected from hostages – moisture, fire, and rodents.
In the wooden carcass building process often there is used wood, which is extracted from conifers – usually pine, less commonly – spruce, larch, cedar, etc. To build a qualitative wooden carcass house, the qualitative wooden material should be chosen, because it has to match the highest quality requirements.
One of the important rules is humidity of the wood, it has to be taken into an account for, when building a wooden carcass house, there was no load in a construction of the building or deformations, cracks in the wood etc. Permissible humidity in the wood is 18-20%. Drying the wood in a natural way, humidity can reduce to 12-16%. That’s why wood, which is tended to be used as a building material, for example, to build a wooden carcass house, it is especially dried by using special; modern technologies and equipment.
One of the advantages, why does wood is so popular in the building, is that it has a high durability capacity, it is durable during the compression (maximum to 35-70 MPa), also due to tensile and bending (maximum up to 80-120 MPa). Thereby, wood is one of the rare materials, which in one time has two important characteristics – it is durable and it has relatively not a huge weight, its relative density is 500 kg/m3. Also, it has a low thermal conductivity, so the wooden house has a relatively small heating loss.
Wooden house has a dangerous hostage – humidity, which promotes mold decay and degradation, and detailed rodents that damage wood structures, as well as always remember that wood is a combustible material. Using for the house building wood, you have to always remember about fire safety measures.
Wood for the construction of a wooden house should be treated both against moisture and against rodents, as well as against the danger of fire. For this reason, it is more profitable to build a wooden carcass house from the industrial modules (so-called modular house, panel house, prefabricated house, etc.), because the wood used for building constructions has already been industrially treated with antiseptics and flame retardants and has the highest fire and humidity class, and it does not target small rodents. It should be emphasized that the materials used for the treatment of industrial wooden carcass modules are completely harmless to human health and are designed to minimize environmental damage.
Few branches, easy to handle
Mostly the pine tree is used for wooden carcass house building because it is relatively cheaper material, also the wood has smoother and even structure. Pine can be made from smooth, large-sized planks, with relatively few branches. The pinewood is easy to handle, for example, spruce boards are especially durable. The extra resin makes this wood more durable to mold and decomposition, and the pinewood is durable.
The pine stands, which are distributed all over the world, but mostly found in the Northern Hemisphere, including the forests of the Latvian state forest, are the most common species of trees – pine stands account for 46% of all stands.
So far, 126 species of pine have been discovered. The pine tree can reach 79 meters and can grow up to 1000 years.
Using of the pine tree in wooden house building
This is one of the most popular trees, which is used in building and carpentry. You can find pine tree in most of the houses – floor covers, furniture, windows etc. A pine tree is cheap and easy available wood material. Not counting building and carpentry, a pine tree is used in the producing of paper, also turpentine, oil, and wood tar. A pine tree is used in the building in general in the interior panels, shelves, doors, window details, veneer, plywood, fence, railroad connections. Mostly, the pine tree is a wooden carcass house frame.
Pine tree wood – soft, but strong and flexible
Although the pine tree is classified as the softwood, it is one of the strongest softwood in the world, and it is flexible. A pine tree is with gloss and smell of resin; it is beautiful and light wood.
The pinewood is resinous, thanks to it it is durable and well opposed to the effect of moisture. Its peel is characterized by scaly peeling, a bark of the trunk at the bottom of the trunk is prawn, gray-brown, but at the top, it is smooth and reddish brown.
The attachment is durable to the crumb, easily fissile, well machined with a variety of cutting tools. Pinewood or its products can be reused as a carbon neutral energy source, thereby increasing the efficiency of wood utilization.
Pinewood is without pores, with a fine, smooth texture. The pine tree is easy to process, dry and transport. It can be polished to a completely smooth surface, glued well and holds nails and screws well.
The fir is an evergreen, large (up to 45 m high) pine tree that reaches the age of 300 years.
Fir – not only for building but also for the health
Nowadays there are 35 species of firs, which are grown mostly in the Northern part of the world. Usually, fir is growing as a decorative plant and as a high-quality wood resource. Firs grow very fast – until 27 cm in one season, but some special species are able to grow even until 152 cm per year. In the wild, spruce can survive even a few thousand years. For example, in Sweden, there is a spruce that has reached 9550 years of age. This is probably the oldest tree on the planet. Wright brothers used a spruce tree to create the first Flyer. Some species of spruce are grown as a source of pulpwood used for paper industry. Captain Cook used fresh shoots of spruce beverage rich in vitamin C. This drink was essential during long journeys so people do not suffer from disorders caused by vitamin D deficiency.
On the other hand, resins and oils from spruce bark are in the form of various ointments for the treatment of rheumatism and muscle pain.
In case of quality does not go away from the pine tree
Firwood material has all the important characteristics – it saves the color for a long time and do not becomes blue, in case of durability, it is equivalent to the pine tree. Probably, because of these characteristics in separate Europe countries in wooden carcass house building fir is even more popular than the pine tree. Using spruce for wooden carcass house designs, care should be taken more closely to keep the wood well dried. To increase long lasting of fir wooden material and to ensure its decomposition, it requires more thorough processing than pine wood. Fir also has a relatively huge amount of branches – more branches complicate its processing and narrow the potential application range.
Use of fir wood for the construction of wooden carcass houses
The fir is one of the most commonly used woods in the construction of wooden carcass houses. Its wood is durable and strong, ideal for supporting functions. In terms of flexibility, spruce is superior to many other conifer species, so it is often used to make curved elements.
In many European countries, the fir has surpassed the pine in popularity, as the fir has a homogeneous structure of wood, it is capable of retaining color for a long time – it does not flower like a pine tree.
Spruce has a great tonal value, it’s important, for example, for musical instruments, because strings of wood are a huge burden. If there were no fir trees, there would not be violins, guitars, cello, mandolin, piano, harp, and other musical instruments. It also has one of the most important wood weight ratios.
The spruce tree is very soft and average density is 470 kg / m³ at 12-15% moisture. The more annual rings, the lower the density, hence the mechanical properties deteriorate. In contact with the soil, the spruce tree requires chemical treatment.
The fir is easy to handle with a saw and a cutter, and it’s easy to connect with screws and glue.
Comparison of the pine tree and fir
The weight of the fir and pine tree is almost relative. The pinewood colors range from amber to reddish brown with an irregular high fat color. In turn, the spruce is cream-white to a white-colored wood with a fine, consistent straightforward deletion. Spruce wood may contain small knots, but pine trees are large.
Pine tree wood:
- Cheaper than fir
- Darker color
- Easier available
- Rustic style
- Is not so exclusive as fir
- Is not so strong as fir
- Better in case of strength and weight than the pine tree
- Tonal characteristics, which are significant for musical instruments