Floor construction is essential for the future operation of the building, ensuring an adequate level of comfort and operating costs. There are two types of construction in the building: concrete floors (most of which are subsequently covered with tiles or heated floors) or floors based on wooden beams or brushes.

Floor construction for different occasions:

The floor on the ground

  • geotextile non-woven material (disperse a load, provide water drainage)
  •  crushed stone, coarse gravel lining (thickness 200 mm, provides direct drainage of water, absorbs soil moisture)
  • Foam polystyrene or mineral wool slabs
  • film (provides moisture in the reinforced concrete plate)
  • monolithic reinforced concrete slab
  • waterproof construction mortar
  • flooring (tiles, laminate, etc.)

Floors with a cold (ventilated) underground

If the floor is based on the wooden beams:

  • wooden beams
  • mineral wool in several layers
  • steam insulation
  • floor cover (boards etc. materials)

If the floor is based on the reinforced concrete slabs:

  • reinforced concrete slab
  • hydro insulation material quires
  • pallets
  • wooden beams or sleepers
  • thermal insulation material between beams
  • Steam insulation
  • looring (boards, etc.)

Heated floor

In the case of both water circulation and electric heating, the floor heating system is similar.

  • concrete layer
  • thermal insulation material
  • concrete layer (thickness 10 mm)
  • pipeline contour (diameter 16 -20 mm) / sieve with heating cable
  • concrete layer (thickness 3-5 cm)
  • waterproofing (in wet areas)
  • floor covering (final layer)

The heated floor has several advantages in comparison to the other heating systems:

  • during the working process, there is no dust circulation,
  • the heating field is very big, the temperature is a little higher than space,
  • secure system, because there are no coverings, where you can burn out,
  • free space without extra heating elements (radiators, oven),
  • lower exploitation costs,
  • water circulation heated floor is possible to connect with another heating type,
  • to heat the space till 20 – 21º  C, the surface temperature of the heated floor has to max +29 º  C, but for providing it, the water flowing in the pipelines should be warmed to + 35 ° C (compared to achieve the same results, the temperature of the passage in the classical radiator system should be +65 – + 85 ° C,
  • heated floor system can be built into a wall by getting an oven effect (then max surface temperature is +50º C.


When building your own private house, you have to pay any attention to each ratio, which helps to save money for a long period on the exploitation costs. In the case of the new wooden carcass buildings, one of the most significant ratios is the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient of the floor. The energy efficiency of the building is one of the priorities in creating energetics policy in case of the nationality and regions, also in the international level, it predicts a high level of the interest in case of any building heating permeability and insulation. It is significant, because when growing the living level and optimal space microclimate. Used materials are everywhere – in walls, ceilings, floors, windows etc.

It is significant to admit appropriate heating insulation covering before you decide to cover a new floor because after the floor is covered, it is impossible to lay out extra heating insulation by not damaging the floor cover.

Each enclosing structure is evaluated according to the principles of thermal transmittance. Unlike external walls and roof coverings, the floor to the bottom should be valued according to other principles in order to avoid incorrect assessment of the building element. As a result, inadequate, incorrect choices of the thermal insulation layer are used, which leads to a rise in costs during construction.

Structures with contact or interspersed contact with the ground – floor on the ground, cold pit constructs, heated and unheated cellars. The soil also performs the thermal insulation function. A proper assessment helps to reduce the thickness of the additional insulation layer to be installed in order to ensure the heat transfer coefficient required in building codes and construction design. What do you need to evaluate it? The thickness of material layers, the coefficient of thermal conductivity of materials, length of the building perimeter, ground contact surface area, characteristic dimensions of a building, floor equivalent thickness. All of these values are necessary because each building has its own individual characteristics – the ground floor, the depth of the floor, etc. Though more complex, complete and accurate calculations provide the customer with the rational use of financial resources in the realization of his project.


Flooring to the bottom of the insulation

Why is this so important? This is to prevent the flow of cold and humidity (links) from the bottom (or basement in other cases). Therefore, the insulation of the first-floor floor is such an issue. Equally important is to install waterproofing. The minimum heat resistance of the floor and insulation materials above the ground, as well as the unheated half casings, must be 2.8 m2-K / W, corresponding to a layer of stone or glass of about 100-120 mm thick. When choosing a thermal insulation material, attention should be paid to heat resistance, load resistance, resistance to deformation, moisture resistance, density, flexibility, sound insulation, fire resistance, air exchange, ecology and, of course, cost.

Terms of laying the floor on the ground:

  • Insulate the insulation boards firmly with each other, without gaps;
  • Do not walk around the insulation layer so that the material does not lose its properties;
  • The installation of thermal insulation depends on the floor structure and its location – basement floors, floor floors above the basement floor, on the beds or on the floor-based floor;
  • It is important whether the floor is built into a new building or is being re-insulated.

Flooring materials on the bottom of the insulation

As heat insulation materials, mostly foam polystyrene and stone or mineral wool are used. By their characteristics, they are practically equivalent. Attention should be paid to the bearing capacity of the various expanded polystyrene loads – these products are of different brands and their properties are different. There will be no problem with this problem. Foam polystyrene is not a flexible material, and in some cases, it may not fit the surface as tightly and densely as it should. Therefore, attention should also be paid to sutures – this also has a small advantage, because it is compressible and easier to put together.

Floor to the bottom of the dry premises

  • Compacted soil
  • Geotextiles
  • Keramzite (fraction 10-20 mm)
  • Extruded polystyrene foam
  • Perimeter insulation – perimeter ribbon (until late casting, floor covering)
  • Dry concrete floor (thickness 30-80 mm), with built-in metal mesh (100x100x3 mm)
  • Deep gravel
  • Flooring

Floor to the bottom of the wet rooms

  • Compacted soil
  • Geotextiles
  • Keramzite (fraction 10-20 mm)
  • Extruded polystyrene foam
  • Perimeter insulation – perimeter ribbon (until late casting, floor covering)
  • Dry concrete for floors (30-80 mm), with built-in metal mesh (100x100x3 mm)
  • Deep gravel
  • Flexible waterproofing on mineral bases of terraces, balconies, basins, and bases for two cross-layers, perimeter and communication outlets fixed with a waterproof tape
  • Flexible tile glue
  • Tiles
  • Tile stitch in the corner, joints and installation connections in silicone

Floors with a cold underground

Floors with cold underground are used in these cases:

  • when the building is built in a wet place,
  • in a place, where there is a high level of the groundwater,
  • the first floor level of the building is 80 – 100 cm up the ground surface level,
  • the building has a stable, pile foundation, where it is not possible to provide the necessary thermal insulation in the underground.

The construction of the floor with the cold underground is made on the intermediate floor covering, but with very good insulation. The floor is based on beams or reinforced concrete planes. To provide appropriate ventilation of the underground, there are placed ventilation canals in every 5 meters with 12 x 12 cm cross-sectional area, which in winter is insulated with a heating insulation material. It is necessary to avoid the condensate in the underground. Constructive resolution for the first floor mainly depends on the floor cover material, space sizes etc. conditions. In the foundation self-supporting construction, on which is based the floor, are beams – 50 mm flat beams with a distance of 600 mm by adjusting the construction to mineral wool plane sizes. Under the heating insulation planes, there are wind protectors – fibreboard/particle board. To support windbreak planes, near the beam lower part there are wooden beams connected. In the case, when the heating insulation layer is on the one level with beams, then before covering the floor, there is a venting gap created – putting the sleepers on the glued floor on the floor.